The early use of the glyphs which represent the signs of the zodiac, planets and other astrological or astronomical phenonema can be traced to 10th or 11th century manuscripts. The Hellenistic astrologers (up through late antiquity) typically wrote out the names of the signs and planets or abbreviated them.

This period did use glyphs for the Sun and the Moon, but there is little surviving evidence of any pictorial representations of the planets and signs they may have had.

The following table of glyphs is derived from the 10th century manuscript of 6th century Byzantine astrologer Rhetorius in Otto Neugebauer's Greek Horoscopes.
Signs Planets & Others

Aries

The modern glyph is very similar to this one.

Sun (Helios)

This is the Hellenistic glyph. Early use of it is evident in the magical papyrus.

Taurus

This is drastically different than the modern glyph. It looks very much like the modern glyph for Capricorn.

Moon (Selene)

This is the Hellenistic glyph. Early use of it is evident in the magical papyri. Sometimes the modern crescent is reversed.

Gemini

The lines for the twins are horizontal while the modern are vertical like the Roman numeral II.

Mercury (Hermes)

Like Venus, similar to the modern but with hook instead of cross.

Cancer

Same as the modern glyph.

Venus (Aphrodite)

Similar to modern Venus but with a hook instead of a cross.

Leo

Similar to the modern glyph but turned on its side.

Mars (Ares)

Similar to the modern glyph. However, an arrow runs through the entire circle.

Virgo

Very different than the modern glyph, though one can see how it could have evolved into the crossed "M".

Jupiter (Zeus)

Zeta likely for "Zeus". Dios was the later Greek word for Jupiter, sometimes used interchangeably with the older Zeus.

Libra

Same as the modern glyph.

Saturn (Kronos)

The modern glyph could be derived from this by stretching out the left leg and adding a crossed line.

Scorpio

Very different than modern glyph. The "M" appears of the modern glyph may be the compression of the looser structure here. This also looks closer to the modern glyph for Capricorn.

North Lunar Node

The North and South Nodes are represented here in the exactly reverse manner as the modern glyphs.

Sagittarius

Similar to the modern glyph but presented vertically.

South Lunar Node

The reverse of the modern South Node.

Capricorn

This is quite different than the modern glyph. This one looks like that used in contemporary astrology for the asteroid Ceres.

Ascendant

Possibly a combination of various Greek letters.

Aquarius

Same as the modern glyph.

Midheaven

Possibly a combination of various Greek letters.

Pisces

Similar to modern glyph. Instead of a bond holding the fish together, dots perhaps represent eyes.
 

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